HTML Tutorial

Chapter: 1

What is HTML?

HyperText Markup Language
HyperText Markup Language, commonly abbreviated as HTML, is the standard markup language used to create web pages. Along with CSS, and JavaScript, HTML is a cornerstone technology used to create web pages, as well as to create user interfaces for mobile and web applications. Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into visible or audible web pages. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically and, before the advent of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), included cues for the presentation or appearance of the document (web page), making it a markup language, rather than a programming language.

A Small HTML Document

 <!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>Your HTML Title</title>
<body>

<h1>Your heading</h1>
<p>Your paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html> 
try this

Explanation of example

  • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines this document to be HTML5
  • The text between <html> and </html> describes an HTML document
  • The text between <head> and </head> provides information about the document
  • The text between <title> and </title> provides a title for the document
  • The text between <body> and </body> describes the visible page content
  • The text between <h1> and </h1> describes a heading
  • The text between <p> and </p> describes a paragraph
Using this description, a web browser will display a document with a heading and a paragraph.

HTML Tags

HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets:

<tagname>content goes here...</tagname>
  • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <p> and </p>
  • The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag
  • The end tag is written like the start tag, but with a forward slash inserted before the tag name

Note: The start tag is also called the opening tag, and the end tag the closing tag.

Web Browsers

The purpose of a web browser (Chrome, IE, Firefox, Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses them to determine how to display the document:

HTML Page Structure

Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:
<html>
<head>
<title>Page title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is another paragraph.</p>
</body>
</html>

The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration represents the document type, and helps the browser to display a web page correctly.
It must only appear once, at the top of the page (before any HTML tags).
There are different document types. To display a web page correctly, the browser must know both type and version.
The doctype declaration is not case sensitive. All cases are acceptable:
1. <!DOCTYPE html>
2. <!doctype HTML>

Common <!DOCTYPE> Declarations

HTML5

<!DOCTYPE html>

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

XHTML 1.0

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" " http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
Note: All tutorials and examples at Free Education use HTML5.

HTML Versions

Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML:
Version Year
HTML 1991
HTML 2.0 1995
HTML 3.2 1997
HTML 4.01 1999
XHTML 2000
HTML5 2014
HTML5.1 2016